Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases. The main advantages of using the interventional cardiology or radiology approach are the avoidance of the scars and pain, and long post-operative recovery. A large number of procedures can be performed on the heart by catheterization. The most commonly involves the insertion of a sheath into the femoral artery, but, in practice, any large peripheral artery or vein and cannulating the heart under X-ray visualization, most commonly fluoroscopy. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most common type of heart surgery. During this surgery, a healthy artery or vein is grafted attached to a blocked coronary artery. This allows the grafted artery to bypass the blocked artery and bring fresh blood to the heart. Open-heart surgery is sometimes called traditional heart surgery. Today, many new heart procedures can be performed with only small incisions, not wide openings.

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