Cardiac surgery or cardiovascular surgery deals with the surgical performance of the heart vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease, for example with coronary artery bypass grafting; to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis. It also includes heart transplantation. Surgery on the great vessels include aortic coarctation repair, Blalock–Thomas–Taussig shunt creation, closure of patent ductus arteriosus became common after the turn of the century. Operations on the heart valves were unknown until in 1925, Henry Souttar operated successfully on a young woman with mitral valve stenosis. He made an opening in the appendage of the left atrium and inserted a finger in order to palpate and explore the damaged mitral valve. The patient survived for several years, but Souttar’s colleagues considered the procedure unjustified and could not continue.