Designing biomimetic materials will be essential to their overall success. Strategies for cardiac tissue engineering include injection of cells, implantation of three?dimensional tissue constructs or patches, injection of acellular materials, and replacement of valves. To replicate physiological function and facilitate engraftment into native tissue materials used in these approaches should have properties that mimic those of the natural cardiac environment. Multiple aspects of the cardiac microenvironment have been emulated using biomimetic materials including delivery of bioactive factors, presentation of cell?specific adhesion sites, design of surface topography to guide tissue alignment and dictate cell shape, modulation of mechanical stiffness and electrical conductivity, and fabrication of three?dimensional structures to guide tissue formation and function. Biomaterials can be engineered to assist in stem cell expansion and differentiation, to protect cells during injection and facilitate their retention and survival in vivo, and to provide mechanical support and guidance for engineered tissue formation.

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