Session 21

Hypertension

Hypertension or high blood pressure is classified as either primary essential high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure. About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use. The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills. Blood pressure is expressed by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively. For most adults, normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–130 millimeters mercury or mmHg systolic and 60–80 mmHg diastolic.

Session 20

Clinical and Experimental Cardiology

Clinical and Experimental Cardiology deals with the studies pertaining to cardiac diseases such as congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and their epidemiology and pathophysiology. Special focus is placed on studies involving diagnosis and management of cardiac diseases such as electrophysiology, cardiovascular implants, cardiac regeneration, cardiac medicine, cardiac surgery, and identification of cardiovascular risk factors. Clinical cardiology encompasses pediatric cardiology, interventional cardiology, echocardiography, case studies and treatment interventions and more. A clinical cardiologist is an internal physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions that affect the heart and surrounding blood vessels. Cardiologists require specialized education and training that teaches them how to prevent and treat diseases affecting the heart. These may include heart attacks, stroke, coronary artery disease and related conditions.

Session 19

Myocardial Infarction

Acute myocardial infarction is called a heart attack. It is a life-threatening condition that occurs when blood flow to the heart is abruptly cut off, causing tissue damage. This happens when a blockage occurs in one or more coronary arteries. A blockage happens due to a buildup of plaque. A plaque is a substance mostly made of fat, cholesterol, and cellular waste products. The symptoms of myocardial infarction are fatigue, chest discomfort, malaise epigastric, indigestion or of fullness and gas etc.

Session 18

Cardiac and Ventricular Remodeling

Chronic hypertension, congenital heart disease with intracardiac shunting, decline in left ventricular performance, and valvular heart disease may lead to cardiac remodeling. Ventricular remodeling or cardiac remodeling refers to changes in size, shape, structure, and functioning of the heart. Ventricular remodeling may result in diminished contractile (systolic) function and reduced stroke volume. This occurs after exercises or physiological remodeling or after injury to the heart muscle called pathological remodeling. Physiological remodeling is reversible which means in cardiology, an improvement in ventricular mechanics and functions. Ventricular remodeling includes ventricular dilation, cardiomegaly, cardiomyopathy, ventricular hypertrophy and many other types. This session discusses further improvements in cardiac and ventricular remodeling etc.

Session 17

Molecular Cardiology

Molecular Cardiology is the study of genetic heart disorders. The aim of the study on molecular cardiology is to reduce heart diseases in humans through clinical cardiology and laboratory studies on molecular cardiology. The research study includes the studies on basic cellular systems, animal models of human disease, human genes and gene discoveries, exome sequencing, mRNA and microRNA profiling, and RNASeq etc needs to pursue vigorously. This session discusses various aspects in molecular cardiology, the role of DNA, cellular biology, genetic engineering in relation to molecular cardiology etc.

Session 16

Coronary Heart Diseases

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. This condition is called Atherosclerosis. Narrowing of coronary arteries that supply oxygen and blood to the heart is known as coronary artery disease. It is a major cause of illness and death. Coronary heart diseases are angina pectoris known as chest pain, shortness of breath, myocardial infarction, or heart attack. This session discusses various options in treatment procedures, diagnosis methodologies, and latest advance technologies in surgery, diet and lifestyle changes in patients.

Session 15

Cardiac Medications

There are several medications to treat your heart diseases. Such medications may be taken for the rest of your life. Cardiac medications include Anticoagulants, Antiplatelet Agents and Dual Antiplatelet Therapy (DAPT), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors, Combined alpha and beta-blockers, Digitalis Preparations, Beta Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, Cholesterol-lowering medications, Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (or Inhibitors), Angiotensin-Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitors (ARNIs), Vasodilators, Diuretics etc.

Session 14

Cardiovascular Surgeries

Depending on the type of heart diseases, there are several surgeries available to treat heart patients. Medicinal treatments or surgeries depend on the condition and diagnosis of the patient. If you’ve had a heart attack, you may have already had certain procedures to help you survive your heart attack and diagnose your condition. Surgeries which include are Angioplasty, Laser Artificial Heart Valve Surgery, Atherectomy, Bypass Surgery, Cardiomyoplasty, Thrombolysis Heart Transplant, Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG), Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery, Radiofrequency Ablation, Stent Placement, and Transmyocardial Revascularization (TMR) and so on. This session discusses various advanced technologies in cardiac surgeries.

Session 13

Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy

There is a risk of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy. It is a challenge to treat such patients without affecting the lives of mother and child. Even in normal patients during pregnancy dramatic changes occurring in physiology may affect the cardiovascular system too. These include an increase in plasma volume by 50%, an increase in resting pulse by 17%, and an increase in cardiac output by 50%. After delivery, the heart rate normalizes within 10 days; by 3 months postpartum, stroke volume, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance return to the pre-pregnancy state. Cardiologists working in tandem with obstetrics, gynecologists, and pediatrics should provide the best treatment interventions.

Session 12

Cardiomyopathy & Heart Failure

When heart becomes stretched and weakened and not able to pump effectively, such condition is called dilated cardiomyopathy. If the right side of the heart is affected, heart failure happens when the heart is not able to pump strongly enough to meet the needs of the body. In such a case tissues in the body do not get enough oxygen. If the left side of the heart is affected, it is unable to pump enough blood to the rest of the body. In most cases, heart failure affects both left and right side, but it can occur on just one side. Heart failure in most of the cases becomes life-threatening and no more manageable through with medical therapies. This session discusses about heart failures and cardiomyopathy and finds out how to improvise the life-expectancy of people suffering from several types of heart diseases.

Session 11

Current Research in Cardiology

Our current research focuses on the early detection of CHD in order to halt or reverse the progress of the disease. The ongoing research includes advances in medicine, the role of pharmaceutical companies, the discovery of vaccines, new drugs, latest applications in diagnoses of cardiologic problems, scanning, X-ray and other tests, early detection methods, reversing the progress of disease, increasing survival rate etc studies on nuclear cardiology, new techniques in evaluating heart diseases, impact of diet regimen, alcohol and smoking, obesity are need to be discussed threadbare in this session on current research in cardiology.

Session 10

Vascular Heart Diseases

The vascular system defines the body’s network of blood vessels, which include the arteries, veins and capillaries that carry blood to and from the heart. Problems of the vascular system are common and can be serious. Thickening of arteries can cause atherosclerosis. Blood clots can clog vessels and block blood flow to the heart or brain. Weakened blood vessels can burst, causing bleeding inside the body. The risk of vascular disease is more as you age along. Other risk factors include are family history, congenital heart problems, illness or injury, obesity, long periods of sitting or standing, high cholesterol levels, smoking alcohol, excessive intake of fat-concentrated foods. This session discusses various issues in how to bring down the mortality rate in cases of cardiovascular heart diseases.

Session 9

Case Reports on Cardiology

Every year cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes 3.9 million deaths in Europe and over 1.8 million deaths in the European Union (EU). Death rates from both ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke are higher in Central and Eastern Europe.

Over the past 25 years, the absolute number of CVD cases has increased in Europe and in EU with increases in the number of new CVD cases found in most countries.
Hospital discharge rates for CVD as a whole have increased steadily in Europe over the past 25 years. Dietary factors and high systolic blood pressure make the largest contribution to the risk of CVD mortality across Europe. Smoking rates have decreased across much of Europe while is high in Soviet Union countries. Levels of obesity are high across Europe and EU. Overall CVD is estimated to cost the EU economy €210 billion a year. This session discusses various options available to bring down the CVD mortality rate to a tolerable level through educating people around the world about the risk factors that causes CVD and other heart diseases.

Session 8

Cardiology – Future Medicine

There have been a number of major advances in pharmacological and mechanical treatments for acute myocardial infarction. This is evident in the fact that large-scale randomized trials of aspirin and β-blockade. Despite this progress, myocardial infarction remains a major global cause of mortality and morbidity, driving a quest for novel treatments in this area. In fact, the last three decades have seen advances in ischemic conditioning, pharmacological and metabolic cardio-protection as well as biological and stem-cell therapies. This session discusses what future cardiology medicines are required including the regenerative therapies, the clinical trials, the advanced research techniques, newer drugs, the development of vaccines, extensive studies in DNA and Genetic Engineering, the role of pharmaceutical companies etc are considered for discussions and debates

Session 7

Heart Regeneration

For the last 150 years or so, investigations are going on intensely on heart regeneration. This is a very challenging proposition since heart is the least regenerative organ in the body, unlike liver, lungs, bladder, bone or skin. So the heart regeneration is possible in the near future in the light of heart problems rising and causing serious health problems causing death. This session discusses if heart regeneration is possible in the near future, and further discusses if human heart has an innate regenerative response, the latest techniques to be adopted in research to find out if heart regeneration is possible.

Session 6

Paediatric Cardiology

Paediatric Cardiology deals with diseases of heart in children and adolescents. Paediatric Cardiologists treat congenital heart diseases, arrhythmias, variations in heartbeat rhythm, and disturbances in circulatory function. Paediatric Cardiologists also need to be professionally experts in generall paediatrics in order to give better patient care deliveries. Paediatric Cardiologists play a vital role in teaching medical students, doctors, general paediatricians, nurses and paramedical staff to equip them well with excellent patient care deliveries. This session discusses various issues concerning paediatric cardiology including research, diagnosis, treatment interventions, and patient care management.

Session 5

Diabetes, Obesity & Stroke

Obesity causes diabetes and heart problems increasing the risk for a stroke. Obesity also affects heart and blood vessels. Besides diabetes and heart problems, obesity also causes respiratory problems, abnormal blood cholesterols, gallstones, and osteoarthritis. Obesity is intimately intertwined with multiple health conditions that underlie cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure, and diabetes. Therefore having obesity and diabetes both increases the risk for heart disease and stroke. This session discusses the consequences of diabetes and obesity increasing heart problems, and the latest multi-pronged treatment methodologies to target diabetes, heart problems and obesity etc.

Session 4

Cardiac and Cardiovascular Research

There is every need to strengthen the cardiac and cardiovascular research to explore more new avenues including the evaluation of current research activities. The Cardiovascular Research needs to focus on cardiovascular disease initiatives, patient care, clinical trials, new tests, treatments, and advancing innovative therapeutics and novel diagnostics to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases. This session discusses various initiatives, discoveries and the application of latest technologies, new direction to cardiovascular research, the application of latest technologies in research like laser technology, robotics, nanotechnology etc.

Session 3

Heart Devices

Heart Devices are electronic devices for assisting cardiac circulation, which are used either too partially or to completely replace the function of a failing heart. These devices include cardioverter defibrillators, implantable or ICDs, pacemakers, biventricular pacemaker, implanted heart rhythm monitors called loop recorders, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, a battery-operated left ventricular assist device (LVAD) etc. This session discusses various heart devices and the advanced technologies that make heart devices more heart-friendly.

Session 2

Heart Diagnosis

Heart Diseases need to be diagnosed on time. Depending on the condition of your heart, doctors suggest diagnostic tests, which include Electrocardiogram (ECG), Echocardiogram, Holter monitoring, stress test, cardiac catheterization, X-rays, cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and various blood tests, and the family history to check for genetic factors. Based on the findings of these diagnoses, you are advised medical care and treatment procedures. This session discusses the emerging advanced technologies in diagnosing heart patients.

Session 1

Heart Disease & Failure

Heart disease is that when patient experiences chest discomfort, tightness or pain. Heart diseases are many such as coronary artery disease, plaque accumulation (atherosclerosis), blood vessel diseases, heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and congenital heart defects rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, ischemic heart disease, hypertension and many more. There are number of heart diseases which include blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and congenital heart defects, rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, ischemic heart disease, hypertension etc. Heart failure is a condition in which your heart fails to pump enough blood to meet your body’s needs. Heart failure is a serious condition that requires medical care. This session discusses about the causative factors and the latest technological advances made in the treatment of heart diseases,

session 39

Cardiovascular Pharmacology

This article provides an overview of cardiovascular pharmacology by relating the mechanism of action of different classes of drugs to their effect on the control of the cardiovascular system. It will cover both newer types of drug, and recent advances in the understanding of older drugs. Understanding the mechanism of action of any new drug allows anesthetists to incorporate new drugs into their clinical practice. The cardiovascular system uses a complex series of control mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. These controls utilize multi-layered, inter-related mechanisms which help to minimize system redundancy and duplication. They utilize diverse methods from simple molecular function to principles of fluid dynamics in whole organs. This complexity has led to a diverse array of therapeutic agents being developed which target different areas.

session 38

Interventional Cardiology

Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases. The main advantages of using the interventional cardiology or radiology approach are the avoidance of the scars and pain, and long post-operative recovery. A large number of procedures can be performed on the heart by catheterization. The most commonly involves the insertion of a sheath into the femoral artery, but, in practice, any large peripheral artery or vein and cannulating the heart under X-ray visualization, most commonly fluoroscopy. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most common type of heart surgery. During this surgery, a healthy artery or vein is grafted attached to a blocked coronary artery. This allows the grafted artery to bypass the blocked artery and bring fresh blood to the heart. Open-heart surgery is sometimes called traditional heart surgery. Today, many new heart procedures can be performed with only small incisions, not wide openings.

Session 37

Cardiac Nursing

Cardiac nursing is a nursing specialty that works with patients who suffer from various conditions of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac nurses help treat conditions such as unstable angina, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction and cardiac dysrhythmia under the direction of a cardiologist. Cardiac nurses perform postoperative care on a surgical unit, stress test evaluations, cardiac vascular monitoring, and health assessments. Cardiac nursing deals with electrocardiogram monitoring, defibrillation, and medication administration by continuous intravenous drip. Cardiac nurses work in many different environments including coronary care units (CCU), cardiac catheterization, intensive care units (ICU), operating theatres, cardiac rehabilitation centers, clinical research, cardiac surgery wards, cardiovascular intensive care units (CVICU), and cardiac medical ward.

Session 36

Diagnostics, Cardiac Imaging And Nuclear Cardiology

Cardiac Diagnosis, Imaging and Medical Tests include physical exam, personal and family medical history, blood tests and a chest X-ray, tests to diagnose heart disease can include Electrocardiogram (ECG), Holter monitoring, Echocardiogram, cardiac catheterization, cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Nuclear cardiology studies use noninvasive techniques to assess myocardial blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart as well as visualize the size and location of a heart attack. Among the techniques of nuclear cardiology, myocardial perfusion imaging is the most widely used. During a nuclear cardiology test, a very small amount of radioactive tracer (radionuclide) is injected into a vein and is taken up by the heart. A very sensitive gamma camera then takes still pictures and movies of the heart with rest, exercise, or medication-induced stress testing.

Session 35

Pediatric & Fetal Cardiology

The Fetal Cardiology is concerned with the diagnosis and managing heart problems in babies before birth. Heart defects can be detected by a detailed ultrasound scan of a baby’s heart during pregnancy called a fetal echocardiogram to assure that unborn baby’s heart is normal. Pediatric and Fetal Cardiology detect abnormal heart rhythms and problems with the heart function in newborns and kids. Pediatric cardiology offer expertise in cardiac imaging, catheter interventions, and electrophysiology. We take care of patients from fetal life into adulthood; and also offer surgical treatment of complex congenital heart disease. Pediatric Cardiology is concerned with all aspects of heart disease in infants, children, and adolescents, including embryology and anatomy, physiology and pharmacology, biochemistry, pathology, genetics, radiology, clinical aspects, investigative cardiology, electrophysiology and echocardiography, and cardiac surgery.

Session 34

Cardiac Nursing

Cardiac nursing is a nursing specialty that works with patients who suffer from various conditions of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac nurses help treat conditions such as unstable angina, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction and cardiac dysrhythmia under the direction of a cardiologist. Cardiac nurses perform postoperative care on a surgical unit, stress test evaluations, cardiac vascular monitoring, and health assessments. Cardiac nursing deals with electrocardiogram monitoring, defibrillation, and medication administration by continuous intravenous drip. Cardiac nurses work in many different environments including coronary care units (CCU), cardiac catheterization, intensive care units (ICU), operating theatres, cardiac rehabilitation centers, clinical research, cardiac surgery wards, cardiovascular intensive care units (CVICU), and cardiac medical ward.

Session 33

Cardiac Nutrition And Public Health

A healthy diet and lifestyle are your best weapons to fight cardiovascular disease. Eat a variety of nutritious foods from all the food groups. Nutrient-rich foods have minerals, protein, whole grains and other nutrients but are lower in calories. They help you control your weight, cholesterol and blood pressure. A healthy dietary pattern consists of a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, skinless poultry and non-fried fish, nuts and legume, and non-tropical vegetable oils. One should limit saturated fat, transfat, sodium, red meat, sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages. Most healthy eating patterns can be adapted based on calorie requirements and personal and cultural food preferences.

Session 32

Cardiac Engineering, Biomimetics And Implants

Designing biomimetic materials will be essential to their overall success. Strategies for cardiac tissue engineering include injection of cells, implantation of three?dimensional tissue constructs or patches, injection of acellular materials, and replacement of valves. To replicate physiological function and facilitate engraftment into native tissue materials used in these approaches should have properties that mimic those of the natural cardiac environment. Multiple aspects of the cardiac microenvironment have been emulated using biomimetic materials including delivery of bioactive factors, presentation of cell?specific adhesion sites, design of surface topography to guide tissue alignment and dictate cell shape, modulation of mechanical stiffness and electrical conductivity, and fabrication of three?dimensional structures to guide tissue formation and function. Biomaterials can be engineered to assist in stem cell expansion and differentiation, to protect cells during injection and facilitate their retention and survival in vivo, and to provide mechanical support and guidance for engineered tissue formation.

Session 31

Cardiac Surgery

Cardiac surgery or cardiovascular surgery deals with the surgical performance of the heart vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease, for example with coronary artery bypass grafting; to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis. It also includes heart transplantation. Surgery on the great vessels include aortic coarctation repair, Blalock–Thomas–Taussig shunt creation, closure of patent ductus arteriosus became common after the turn of the century. Operations on the heart valves were unknown until in 1925, Henry Souttar operated successfully on a young woman with mitral valve stenosis. He made an opening in the appendage of the left atrium and inserted a finger in order to palpate and explore the damaged mitral valve. The patient survived for several years, but Souttar’s colleagues considered the procedure unjustified and could not continue.

Session 30

Cholesterol Lowering Drugs

There are currently six different classes of drugs available for lowering cholesterol levels. There are currently seven HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) approved for lowering cholesterol levels and they are the first line drugs for treating lipid disorders and can lower LDL cholesterol levels by as much as 60%. Statins also are effective in reducing triglyceride levels in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Statins lower LDL levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase activity leading to decreases in hepatic cholesterol content resulting in an up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptors, which increases the clearance of LDL. The major side effects are muscle complications and an increased risk of diabetes. The different statins have varying drug interactions. Ezetimibe lowers LDL cholesterol levels by approximately 20% by inhibiting cholesterol absorption by the intestines leading to the decreased delivery of cholesterol to the liver, a decrease in hepatic cholesterol content, and an up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptors. Ezetimibe is very useful as add on therapy when statin therapy is not sufficient or in statin intolerant patients.

Session 29

mediterranean diet and cardioprotection

Dietary interventions are first-line therapy for coronary heart disease prevention and treatment. Increasing scientific evidence suggests that the traditional Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular benefits of this whole-diet approach may outweigh those of typically prescribed low-fat diets. The burden of coronary heart disease is enormous, and nutritional approaches that optimize cardiovascular health are essential. Clinical trial evidence supporting the role of the Mediterranean diet in cardiovascular health is presented with an emphasis on the physiological effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Implications for clinical practice and future research are also discussed. The cardio protective benefits of the Mediterranean diet enriched in green vegetables, fruits, fish and grape wine. Regular consumption of these products leads to an accumulation of nitrate/nitrite/NO, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and poly phenolic compounds, such as resveratrol, in the human body.

Session 28

Cardiovascular Engineering

Cardiovascular Engineering presents a wide spectrum of research from basic to translational in all aspects of cardiovascular physiology and medical treatment. It offers academic and industrial investigators a forum for the dissemination of research that utilizes engineering principles and methods to advance fundamental knowledge and technological solutions related to the cardiovascular system. Coverage ranges from subcellular to systems level topics, including among others, implantable medical devices; hemodynamics and tissue biomechanics; functional imaging; surgical devices; electrophysiology; tissue engineering and regenerative medicine; diagnostic instruments; transport and delivery of biologics; and sensors. Cardiovascular solid mechanics work addresses the mechanical properties and stresses in healthy and diseased arterial cross sections, and examines the role of mechanical factors in the disruption of atherosclerotic plaques.

Session 27

Angiography & Interventional Cardiology

Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases. Andreas Gruentzig is considered the father of interventional cardiology after the development of angioplasty by interventional radiologist Charles Dotter. A large number of procedures can be performed on the heart by catheterization. This most commonly involves the insertion of a sheath into the femoral artery but, in practice, any large peripheral artery or vein and cannulating the heart under X-ray visualization most commonly fluoroscopy. The radial artery may also be used for cannulation. This approach offers several advantages including the accessibility of the artery in most patients the easy control of bleeding even in anticoagulated patients, the enhancement of comfort because patients are capable of sitting up and walking immediately following the procedure, and the near absence of clinically significant sequelae in patients with a normal Allen test.

Session 26

Women’s Cardiology

Cardiovascular disease is a cause of death in one of every three women and affects 43 million women in the US. We can help you to recognize the unique signs and symptoms of heart and vascular disease in women. Coronary heart disease, heart failure and stroke are the three forms of cardiovascular disease, the No. 1 killer of women in America today. Nearly half a million women will die from cardiovascular disease this year, more than the next three causes of death combined, including all forms of cancer. While most people are familiar with the symptoms and risk factors for cardiovascular disease few realize that there are important differences in women’s symptoms.

Session 25

Cardio-Oncology

Cardio-oncology is the intersection of heart conditions in patients who have been treated for cancer. Cardiologists can assess patients for potential risk of developing heart conditions if patients take certain types of cancer drugs or following radiation treatment to the chest. They also help oncologists protect their patients during treatment by closely watching the heart and recognizing heart trouble early in treatment. Cardiologists use advanced imaging to diagnose and evaluate a patient’s risk of developing a heart condition due to certain types of cancer treatments. Our cardiologists also treat patients who are undergoing cancer treatment but have developed heart conditions in the hope of protecting their heart function as much as possible. Certain cancer drugs can weaken the heart or cause abnormal rhythms.

Session 24

Heart and Obesity

People with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher are considered obese. The term obesity is used to describe the health condition of anyone significantly above his or her ideal healthy weight. Being obese puts you at a higher risk for health problems such as heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes and more. For some time, scientists have suspected that excess fat tissue, especially around the waist, has a direct effect on heart structure and function, even in the absence of other heart disease risks. To pursue this theory, researchers evaluated 950 older individuals of varying weights for signs of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. This condition is characterized by changes to the structure of the heart’s main pumping chamber (left ventricle), which prevent it from filling sufficiently between beats.

Session 23

Arrhythmias

Arrhythmia is an irregular heartbeat. There are several ways in which a heartbeat can lose its regular rhythm. These include tachycardia, when the heart beats too fast; bradycardia, when the heart beats too slowly; premature ventricular contractions, or additional, abnormal beats; fibrillation, when the heartbeat is irregular. Arrhythmias occur when electrical impulses in the heart that coordinate the heartbeat do not work properly. These make the heart beat in a way it should not, whether that be too fast, too slowly, or too erratically. Irregular heartbeats are common, and all people experience them. They feel like a fluttering or a racing heart. However, when they change too much or occur because of a damaged or weak heart, they need to be taken more seriously and treated. Arrhythmias can become fatal.

Session 22

Molecular Cardiology

The Molecular Cardiology is concerned with the study of the molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular biology of great interest for human cardiovascular diseases. The study focuses on discovering and studying novel pathways that regulate cardiac hypertrophy, aging and metabolic diseases with specific attention to translating bench findings to new bedside approaches and strategies. Using a broad variety of techniques in genomics, stem cell biology, molecular biology, gene therapy, transgenic models and parabiosis, we approach cardiovascular problems relevant to human diseases to develop solutions that we validate by performing in vivo studies. A great interest of the laboratory is the identification of novel circulating factors that regulate cardiac biology, including aging and hypertrophy.

session 44

Hypertension And Healthcare

Hypertension also known as high blood pressure (HBP) is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure however is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia. High blood pressure is classified as either primary essential high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure. About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use.

session 43

Occupational Heart Disease

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Among the many conditions that make up Cardiovascular diseases are coronary heart disease, stroke or damage to the brain caused by a blood clot or intracerebral bleeding, and other diseases of the heart such as arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, and heart valve problems. Health behaviors and factors that define cardiovascular health have been characterized. Much is unknown about how occupational risk factors contribute to cardiovascular heart diseases. Researchers are investigating a wide variety of occupational factors potentially related to cardiovascular heart diseases. The current areas of study address a range of workers, risk factors, and causes causing cardiovascular heart diseases.

session 42

Cardiac Toxicity

Cardiac toxicity is damage to the heart by harmful chemicals. As part of the treatment patients are given toxins drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy can cause mild or severe damage to the heart. If severe, congestive heart failure or other life-threatening problems can occur. A side effect is that the normal cells in and around your heart can also be killed. Besides cell death, other types of cardiac toxicity from cancer treatment include cardiomyopathy in which heart muscle is weakened, enlarged, thickened, or stiff; Myocarditis, inflammation or swelling of the heart; pericarditis is inflammation or swelling of the sac surrounding the heart; acute coronary syndromes caused by blood vessel damage; congestive heart failure, when the heart is unable to pump enough blood throughout the body. A heart transplant may even be needed.

session 41

Vascular Biology

The formation of new blood vessels, angiogenesis is an important and strictly controlled process that under normal circumstances takes place during embryonic development in wound healing and in the female menstruation cycle. However, in several diseases for instance cancer there is an exaggerated angiogenesis that leads to a disorganized and dysfunctional vasculature that may propagate the disease. Vascular Biology deal with the research studies on how angiogenesis is regulated both during embryo development in adults and in diseases mainly cancer. We also study the mechanisms underlying the formation of functional lymphatic vessels and the development of fibrosis. The vascular network consists of both small and large vessels specifically designed to accommodate varying levels of blood flow and pressure, depends upon the location within the body or large conduit vessels versus small microvessels within the capillary beds in tissues.

session 40

Cardiac Regeneration

After decades of directed research, no effective regenerative therapy is currently available to repair the injured human heart. The epicardium, a layer of mesothelial tissue that envelops the heart in all vertebrates, has emerged as a new player in cardiac repair and regeneration. The epicardium is essential for muscle regeneration in the zebrafish model of innate heart regeneration and the epicardium also participates in fibrotic responses in mammalian hearts. This structure serves as a source of crucial cells such as vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and fibroblasts, during heart development and repair. The epicardium also secretes factors that are essential for proliferation and survival of cardiomyocytes. There are recent advances in understanding the biology of the epicardium and the effect of these findings on the candidacy of this structure as a therapeutic target for heart repair and regeneration.

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